Australia’s trusted independent immunisation experts

 

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, our policy support team has been closely monitoring publicly available information on COVID-19 vaccine candidates. We have used information from international platforms, including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness and Innovations (CEPI), national regulatory institutes, clinical trial registries, vaccine developers and manufacturers, and scientific literature to develop the content on this page. Our focus is to understand the current state of development of COVID-19 vaccines and clinical trials. We will be updating this page weekly.

06 Aug

 

Figures are according to the WHO document Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines

The Milken Institute COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker and others identify more vaccines (including therapeutic and prophylactic vaccines).

  • COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials globally

    Candidate vaccines must be tested in preclinical, phase I, phase II, phase III clinical trials before they are licensed and available to the public. For further explanation, refer to Phases of clinical trials page. Traditionally it takes at least 10 years from development to licensure of a vaccine. The pandemic has pushed for an accelerated approach to vaccine development. Several candidate vaccines have moved into the next stage of clinical trials before completion of earlier stage trials.  

    There are several vaccine platforms that are being used for the development of COVID-19 vaccines. These include long-established technologies such as live attenuated virus/ inactivated virus and protein vaccines. More modern methods such as viral vector vaccines and nucleic acid vaccines are also being used to develop COVID-19 vaccines. Refer to Vaccine platforms page for an explanation of different vaccine platforms. 

    Below are candidate vaccines that are currently in clinical trials. Some candidates are undergoing multiple trials in different phases. 

    Phase 3
    Vaccine Developer Clinical trial in Vaccine platform Number of participants Age range
    ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 University of Oxford Brazil Viral vector  2,000 18-55 years
    CoronaVac Sinovac Biotech Brazil Inactivated 8,870 ≥18 years
    Unnamed Wuhan Institute of Biological Products United Arab Emirates Inactivated 15,000 ≥18 years
    Unnamed Beijing Institute of Biological Products United Arab Emirates Inactivated 15,000 ≥18 years
    mRNA-1273           Moderna USA RNA 30,000 ≥18 years

    BNT162b2

    BioNTech USA RNA 30,000 ≥18 years
    Phase 2 &3
    Vaccine Developer Clinical trial in Vaccine platform Number of participants Age range
    ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 University of Oxford UK Viral vector 10560 ≥2 years
    Phase 2
    Vaccine Developer Clinical trial in Vaccine platform Number of participants Age range
    Ad5-nCoV CanSino Biologics China Viral vector 500 ≥18 years
    mRNA-1273 Moderna/NIAID       USA   RNA       600  ≥18 years
    Unnamed Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceuticals China Protein         900 18–59 years
    Phase 1&2
    Vaccine Developer Clinical trial in Vaccine platform Number of participants Age range
    ChAdOx1 nCoV-19             University of Oxford UK Viral vector 1090  18–55 years
    ChAdOx1 nCoV-19                  University of Oxford (UK) South Africa Viral vector  2000  18–65 years
    Ad5-nCoV               CanSino Biologics (China)  Canada     Viral vector 696  18–85 years
    CoronaVac                Sinovac Biotech   China Inactivated   Phase I: 144 phase II: 600 18–59 years

    CoronaVac

    Biotech China  Inactivated     Phase I: 72
    Phase II: 350
    ≥60 years
    BNT162                BioNTech  Germany    RNA 196   18–55 years
    BNT162                 BioNTech USA     RNA  7600 18–85 years

    Unnamed

    Beijing Institute of Biological Products  China   Inactivated     Phase I: 480
    Phase II: 1168
    ≥3 years

    Unnamed

    Wuhan Institute of Biological Products China   Inactivated     Phase I: 288
    Phase II: 1168
    ≥6 years
    NVX-CoV2373                   Novavax (US)  Australia Protein 125 18–89 years
    Unnamed Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences  China Inactivated 942  18–59 years
    Unnamed Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences China Inactivated 471 ≥60 years
    INO-4800                 Inovio (USA)  South Korea DNA  160   19–64 years

    GX-19

    Genexine Consortium South Korea DNA Phase I: 40
    Phase II: 150
    18–50 years
    Unnamed             Cadila Healthcare Limited  India   DNA   1048   ≥12 years
    AG0301-COVID19                    AnGes Inc Japan DNA 30  20–65 years

    BBV152                   

     

    Bharat Biotech International China Inactivated  Phase I: 375
    Phase II: 750
    Phase I: 18–55 years
    Phase II: 12–65 years
    KBP-201 Kentucky BioProcessing USA Protein 180 18–70 years
    ARCT-021 Arcturus Therapeutics Singapore RNA 85 21–80 years
    AD26.COV2.S Janssen Pharmaceuticals USA and Belgium Viral vector 1045 ≥18 years
    Phase 1
    Vaccine Developer Clinical trial in Vaccine platform Number of participants Age range
    Ad5-nCoV               CanSino Biologics  China      Viral vector 108 18–60 years
    mRNA-1273            Moderna      USA   RNA 105  18–99 years
    INO-4800      Inovio USA     DNA     40 18–50 years
    LNP-nCoVsaRNA                Imperial College London UK   RNA  320   18–75 years
    Gam-COVID-Vac                  Gamaleya Research Institute  Russia Viral vector   38 18–60 years
    SCB-2019                   Clover Biopharmaceuticals (China) Australia Protein  150  18–75 years
    Unnamed                 Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceuticals China  Protein 50   18–59 years
    CVnCoV                  CureVac   Germany and Belgium RNA 168   18–60 years
    Covax-19                Vaxine Australia      Protein 40 18–65 years
    Unnamed                   People’s Liberation Army, Academy of Military Sciences China  RNA 168 18–80 years
    SARS-CoV-2 S clamp                 University of Queensland   Australia  Protein  120 18–55 years
    CoVLP                Medicago   Canada Virus like particle  180  18–55 years
  • COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials in Australia

    There are currently four COVID-19 candidate vaccines in human clinical trials in Australia. Two of these candidates -  Covax-2019 and SARS-CoV-2 S - are being developed and trialled in Australia. The other two candidates are being developed in countries outside of Australia: the SCB-2019 candidate by Clover Biopharmaceuticals is being developed in China and the NVX-CoV2373 candidate by Novavax is being developed in the United States. Novavax released positive results from its phase 1 trial in Australia on 5 August 2020. Click here to see the results.

    map
    • COVID-19 vaccine development in Australia

      Several COVID-19 candidate vaccines are being developed in Australia. Two candidates have entered into phase I clinical trials and others are currently in laboratory and pre-clinical stages. The following information is from publicly available data and may not include all candidates in development in Australia. 

      Phase 1 trial
      Vaccine Developer Platform Collaborators Manufacturing capacity Trial
      Covax-19 Vaxine Recombinant spike protein with Advax® adjuvant Medytox, South Korea (biopharmaceutical) and Oracle Cloud technology (technical collaboration) Not yet published Commenced phase I trial on 30 June 2020 in Adelaide
      SARS-CoV-2 S clamp The University of Queensland Protein subunit with the MF59 adjuvant CSIRO (pre-clinical testing) and Coalition of Epidemic Preparedness and Innovations, CEPI (funding) CSL (100 million doses) Commenced phase I trial on 14 July 2020 in Brisbane
       
       
       
       
       
      Lab and preclinical
      Organisation Platform Collaborator
      Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery GRIDD, Queensland Virus-like particle Lunia Bio (biomanufacturing)
      Griffith University, Queensland Live attenuated Indian Immunologicals Limited (manufacturing)
      Doherty Institute, Victoria           Virus like particle Not yet published 

    Vaccines must go through several phases of clinical trials before they can enter the market. Not all vaccines that enter the initial phases of clinical trails make it to the market. Visit our Phases of clinical trials page to learn more.

    Different platforms are used to develop viral vaccines. Each of these platforms has its own advantages and disadvantages. Visit our Vaccine platforms page to learn more.

    Note: NCIRS checks clinical trial registries, particularly the U.S. National Institute of Health, National Library of Medicine: Clinical Trials Gov, EU Clinical Trials Register, ISRCTN) on a regular basis to monitor the commencement of clinical trials.