In 1943, a clinical trial of the University of Michigan showed that the inactivated influenza vaccine was approximately 70% effective and protection was correlated with HAI antibodies. Since then, vaccine effectiveness has varied from year to year.

In this seminar Professor Arnold Monto discusses how current, more sober, observations of vaccine effectiveness have helped us in understanding the ways our current vaccines might be improved. Professor Robert Booy presents on risk factors, key outcomes and local control efforts.

Video resources
Slides and audio from the webinar are available below.
The session was chaired by Professor Kristine Macartney, NCIRS Director.


Professor Arnold Monto
Arnold S. Monto is the Thomas Francis Jr. Collegiate Professor at the University of Michigan School of Public Health’s Department of Epidemiology. The major focus of his work has been the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of acute infections in the individual and the community.  He led the studies of respiratory infection in Tecumseh, MI, a landmark study of illness in the community, and is now updating these observations in Michigan households with children.  Dr Monto is involved in assessing the efficacy of various types of influenza vaccine in prophylaxis and antivirals in prophylaxis and therapy of influenza. He now heads observational studies of effectiveness of influenza vaccines in various settings.  He has been a member of the National Allergy and Infectious Disease Advisory Council of the National Institutes of Health.  He is a past president of the American Epidemiological Society and the 2009 recipient of the Alexander Fleming Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America for lifetime achievement.

Professor Robert Booy
Professor Robert Booy is the Head of Clinical Research at NCIRS. His research interests extend from understanding the genetic basis of susceptibility to, and severity of, infectious diseases, especially influenza, RSV and invasive disease caused by encapsulated organisms; the clinical, public health, social and economic burden of these diseases; and means by which to prevent or control serious infections through vaccines, drugs and non-pharmaceutical measures.


Last updated December 2018